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Functional Testing is a type of software testing that validates the software system against the functional requirements/specifications. The purpose of Functional tests is to test each function of the software application, by providing appropriate input, verifying the output against the Functional requirements.
Functional testing mainly involves black box testing and it is not concerned about the source code of the application. This testing checks User Interface, APIs, Database, Security, Client/Server communication and other functionality of the Application Under Test. The testing can be done either manually or using automation.What do you test in Functional Testing?
The prime objective of Functional testing is checking the functionalities of the software system. It mainly concentrates on –
Mainline functions: Testing the main functions of an application
Basic Usability: It involves basic usability testing of the system. It checks whether a user can freely navigate through the screens without any difficulties.
Accessibility: Checks the accessibility of the system for the user
Error Conditions: Usage of testing techniques to check for error conditions. It checks whether suitable error messages are displayed.
How to do Functional Testing
Following is a step by step process on How to do Functional Testing :
Understand the Functional Requirements
Identify test input or test data based on requirements
Compute the expected outcomes with selected test input values
Execute test cases
Compare actual and computed expected resultsFunctional Testing Types
Here are Examples of Functional Testing Types
InteroperabilityFunctional Vs Non-Functional Testing:
Functional Testing Non-Functional Testing
Functional testing is performed using the functional specification provided by the client and verifies the system against the functional requirements. Non-Functional testing checks the Performance, reliability, scalability and other non-functional aspects of the software system.
Functional testing is executed first Non-functional testing should be performed after functional testing
Manual Testing or automation tools can be used for functional testing Using tools will be effective for this testing
Business requirements are the inputs to functional testing Performance parameters like speed, scalability are inputs to non-functional testing.
Functional testing describes what the product does Nonfunctional testing describes how good the product works
Easy to do Manual Testing Tough to do Manual Testing
White box testing
Black Box testing
User Acceptance testing
Here is a list of popular Functional Testing Tools. They are explained as follows:
Popular Open Source Functional Testing Tool
Selenium is an open-source web automation tool, currently in demand, and widely used tool in the market. It is one of the best QA automation tools that can automate across multiple OS Like Windows, Mac, and Linux and browsers like Firefox, Chrome, IE, as well as Headless Browsers. Check our Selenium tutorial.
Selenium offers record and playback features with its browser add-on Selenium IDE
Price: Free to use
This is an open source functional testing tool, mainly used for Web service testing. It supports multiple protocols such as HTTP, SOAP, and JDBC.
The GUI of the software is easy to handle and use
Vulnerability testing feature helps to secure website from hackers and viruses.
It is possible to do the detailed analysis using its reporting feature.
The SQL Injection feature, which can be utilized to perform functional testing, provides some standard SQL queries and methods to identify the weak areas of the application.
It is a free, so there are no costs to use the tool.
This automated testing tool, suitable for conducting functional tests, is supported by a very active and growing community.
It supports multiple browsers on different platforms.
It is a powerful and lightweight tool.
4) QTP – Very user-friendly Functional Test tool by HP
5) JUnit– Used mainly for Java applications and this can be used in Unit and System TestingConclusion:
In software testing, functional testing, which is a process of testing functionalities of the system, ensures that the system is working as per the functionalities specified in the business document. The goal of functional testing in software testing is to check whether the system is functionally perfect!!!
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